According to the “Instructions to the Enumerators” for the 1880 census posted on the website for the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota, there is a difference between someone who is shown to be a housekeeper and someone who is said to be keeping house in the 1880 census.

A housekeeper receives wages or salary for their service. A woman who is keeping house for themselves or their families (without other gainful occupation) is said to be “keeping house.”

This could easily apply to other enumerations as well.



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